The Brazilian Research Funding Landscape can be divided in seven different funding systems. While the first four funding lines are directly or indirectly related to Brazilian ministries, the last three funding lines are related to private funding of companies and industry sector:
1. Institutional funding
The main source of funding for research in universities' higher education institutes is the National Fund of Scientific and Technological Development (Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, FNDCT). Its budget for 2008 was of R$ 2.63 billion including the budget of its innovation agency FINEP (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos) and research agency CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) and other ministerial institutions and units. While FINEP is managing the resources of the FNDCT and is also receiving additional fund for its own innovation programs, CNPq is the main source for research funding. Institutional Funding is also done by the Ministry of Science and Technology (Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, MCT) due to their own Research Institutes.
2. Indirect funding - through budgets of public and private universities, institutes and centers
Some universities, such as UNICAMP, have their own internal agencies, foundations (e.g. Fundação de Desenvolvimento da UNICAMP, FUNCAMP) and funds set apart and managed with the purpose of supporting R&D&I by their faculties and students. These agencies often do not an own budget for research funding and are receiving their funds from the fostering agencies (CNPq, FINEP, etc.)
3. Project-based funding
The MCTs research funding unit CNPq, Brazil's science council, the oldest science policy agency in the country, is responsible for project-based funding. There are two programs to distribute the project-based funding:
Research Capacity Building Human Resource Program – a direct funding program for mostly individual scholarships. In 2008 almost 59,000 scholarships were awarded.
Knowledge Expansion and Consolidation Program – this program is about funding groups and projects. In 2006 almost 2,600 projects were funded.
4. Sector funding
The MCT, FINEP and CNPq are deciding the sectors of special needs which will be funded. In special cases, funding may take place through requests, as determined by the Managing Committees. Aside from the Fund for the Technological Development of Telecommunications (Fundo para o Desenvolvimento Tecnológico das Telecomunicações, FUNTTEL), managed by the Ministry of Communications (Ministério das Comunicações, MC), the resources of other funds are allocated in the FNDCT and managed by FINEP, as its Executive Secretariat. The sector funds were created in the prospect of additional sources of funds to finance the development of strategic sectors for the country. Funding in 2008 reached almost 490 million R$ and more than doubled in relation to 2007.
There are 17 sector funds, of which 15 related to specific sectors and two cross sector funds. Of these, one is focused on university-industry interactions (FVA - Verde-Amarelo), while the other is intended to help improve the infrastructure of ICT (CT-Infra).
- Fundo Setorial do Audiovisual – Culture
- CT-Aeronáutico – Aeronautics Sector
- CT-Agro – Agrobusiness
- CT-Amazônia – Development of R&D Activities in the Amazon region
- CT-Aquaviário – Marine and River Transportation and Naval Construction
- CT-Biotec – Biotechnology
- CT-Energia – Energy
- CT-Espacial – Space Activities
- CT-Hidro – Water Resources
- CT-Info – Informatics
- CT-Infra – Infrastructure
- CT-Mineral – Mineral Resources
- CT-Petro – Oil and Gas
- CT-Saúde – Health
- CT-Transporte – Transportation
- Funttel – Telecommunication
- University business cooperation - Verde-Amarelo – Innovation
Funding Flow diagram of sector funds
Source: UNESCO Sistemas nacionales de ciencia, tecnología e innovación em América Latina y el Caribe 2010
5. Industrial, commercial and services private companies
6. National private and non- profit associations and foundations
Funds via statutory mechanisms or donations by private individuals or companies.
7. Funding by other nations, international organizations and multilateral institute
Such as Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank, UNESCO, UNDP, World Health Organization, World Wildlife Foundation, Kellogg Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US National Science Foundation and Volkswagen Foundation, just to name a few of the more important ones in the history of Brazilian science and technology.
 FINEP: Research and Project Financing
 CNPq: Bolsas - Apresentação
 CNPq: Relatório de Gestão Institucional
 FINEP: O que são os Fundos de C&T
 Unesco: Políticas de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación